Direct and Indirect Simple Rules and Chart

Rules of Direct and Indirect

Direct Narration: जब किसी व्यक्ति के द्वारा कहे गए कथन को ज्यों का त्यों (as it is )कहते हैं तो वह डायरेक्ट Narration or Direct Speech कहलाता है.

Example: He said to me, “Viki has gone to Delhi.”

Direct Narration के Parts: डायरेक्ट Narration के तीन पार्ट्स होते हैं

1 Reported Speech: Inverted commas के अंदर वाले भाग को रिपोर्टेड स्पीच कहते हैं

Viki has gone to Delhi.”

2-Reporting Speech: Inverted commas के बाहर वाले भाग को रिपोर्टिंग स्पीच कहते हैं

     He said to me

3- Reporting Verb- रिपोर्टिंग स्पीच में आने वाली verb को रिपोर्टिंग verb कहते हैं

said to

Indirect Narration:-जब किसी व्यक्ति के द्वारा कह गए कथन को ज्यों का त्यों (as it is ) न कहकर उसके अर्थ को अपने सब्दो में प्रकट करते हो तो उसे Indirect Narration कहते हैं

Assertive Sentence में Direct Naration से Indirect Naration बनाने के नियम:

1: यदि रिपोर्टिंग स्पीच में ऑब्जेक्ट न हो तो रिपोर्टिंग verb को नहीं बदलते

२ यदि रिपोर्टिंग वर्ब में ऑब्जेक्ट है तो रिपोर्टिंग वर्ब को निम् प्रकार बदलते हैं

Said to -told

Say to- tell

says to – tells

will say to- will tell

shall say to- will tell

3 Comma तथा inverted commas को हटाकर conjunction- that का प्रयोग करते हैं

4: रिपोर्टेड स्पीच में आने वाले पहले कैपिटल लेटर को स्मॉल बना देते हैं परन्तु यदि proper noun (किसी व्यक्ति या स्थान के नाम ) तथा(I) को कैपिटल ही रहने देते हैं

5 यदि रिपोर्टिंग स्पीच Present or Future Tense में है तो रिपोर्टेड स्पीच का tense नहीं बदलता

6 यदि रिपोर्टिंग स्पीच Past tense में है तो रिपोर्टेड स्पीच को निम्न प्रकार बदलते हैं

Present Indefinite…..Past Indefinite

Present Continuous…..Past Continuous

Present Perfect…..Past Perfect

Present Perfect Continuous…..Past Perfect Continuous

Past Indefinite… Past perfect

Past Continuous… Past Perfect Continuous

Past perfect…..No change

Past Perfect Continuous…No change

Future Tense—– Will….would

and Shall… should

 

He says, “He was going to school.”

He says that he was going to school.

He will say, “He  was going to schol.”

He will say that he was going to school.

He said, “He was going to school.”

He said that he had been going to school.

He said to me, “He was going to school.”

He told me that he had been going to school.

 

Person Change के नियम: -रिपोर्टेड स्पीच में आने वाले personal Peonouns को Reporting Speech के Subject  या object के अनुसार बदलते हैं.

Reported Speech के First person(I, we us, me our, ours, my, mine etc. )को Reporting Speech के subject के अनुसार बदलते हैं.

Reported Speech के Second person(you, your, yours, etc. )को Reporting Speech के object के अनुसार बदलते हैं.

Reported Speech के third person(he, she, it, they, him, her, them, his, etc. )को नहीं बदलते हैं.

He said to me, “You have not returned my book.”

He told me that I had not returned his book.

I said to my friend, “You are teasing me.”

I told my friend that he was teasing me.

Note:- यदि Second person को object के अनुसार बदलने की जरुरत हो परन्तु object न हो तो object के स्थान पर suitable अनुमानित ऑब्जेक्ट रख लेते हैं परन्तु यदि कुछ ठीक से अनुमान न लग सके तो third person का him मान लेते हैं

The teacher said, “You should not wear bangles in the school.”

The teacher said that she should not wear bangles in the school.

The teacher said, “You should come to school in time.”

The teacher said that he should come to school in time.

निम्न लिखित conditions मैं Reporting speech का Tense, past मैं होने पर भी Reported Speech का Tense नहीं बदला जाता.

Universal Truth: सदैव सत्य रहने वाली बात

He said to me, “The sun rises in the east.”

He told me that the sun rises in the east.

 

Historical Truth: ऐतिहासिक सत्य

The teacher said, “Shahjahan built up the taj.”

The teacher said that Shahjahan built up the taj.

 

Proverb: कहावत

He said, “Honesty is the best policy.”

He said that honesty is the best policy.

 

Habitual Action: वयवहारिक कार्य

Mother said to me, “Dogs bark at the stranger.”

Mother told me that dogs bark at the strangers.

 

 

Model Auxiliaries मैं  Indirect बनाने के नियम :-

कुछ Models को Indirect  बनाते samay निम्न prakar बदलते हैं.

May-Might

Ccan-Could

Has to, have to-Had to

Is to, am to, are to-was to were to

He said, “I can solve this question.”

He said that he could solve that question.

But निम्नलिखित models को Indirect बनाते समय चेंज नहीं करते.

Should, must, might, could, was to were to, had to, ought to, used to

He said to me, “You must go to school.”

He told me that I must go to school.

 

नियम. Interrogetive Sentences मै reporting verb को निम्न प्रकार बदलते हैं.

Said or said to…asked.

Says…asks

Say….ask

यदि reported speech मैं सबसे पहले helping verb है तो  conjunction के स्थान पर  if या whether का प्रयोग करते हैं परन्तु यदि reported मैं सबसे पहले question word है तो  question word को ही  conjunction के स्थान पर रखते हैं

Conjunction के बाद sentence को assertive बनाते हैं.तथा question mark ? को हटा देते हैं.

He said to me, “Was he going to school?”

He asked me if he had been going to school.

He said to me, “Why was he not going to school?”

He asked me why he had not been going to school.

 

नियम. सेन्टेन्सेस मैं निम्न प्रकार बदलते हैं

नियम. Imperative Sentences मैं निम्न प्रकार बदलते हैं

Said or said to Ke स्थान पर following verbs का प्रयोग करते हैं.

Requested, ordered, commanded, suggested, advised, forbade, etc.

Jin vakyon में Please या kindly आता है un में requested का प्रयोग करते हैं तथा please या kindly को हटा देते हैं.

Jin vakyon में sir या madam aata है un में respectfully का प्रयोग करते हैं तथा sir…madam को हटा देते हैं.

इनमें  conjunction के स्थान पर to का प्रयोग करते हैं परन्तु to,conjunction नहीं है balki preposition है.

He said, “Please help me.

He requested to help him.

The teacher said to thestudents, “Complete your work soon.”

The teacher ordered the student to complete their work soon.

Let us वाले vakyon में said ya said to को  suggested या proposed to में बदलते हैं.

Let us को हटा कर that we should, that you should या that they should, का प्रयोग करते हैं.

तथा other rules पहले की तरह ही  प्रयोग करते हैं.

नियम: Jin vakyon में let के बाद us को छोड़ कर कोई इतर वर्ड आता है तो उनमे simple imperative की तरह  indirect speech  banate hain

He said, “Please let me go.”

He requested to let him go.

Direct to indirect in Optative Sentences:

“Said or said to” are changed that follows.

Wished, prayed, blessed, cursed, bade, (applauded…saying that) for bravo.

The old man said, “May God bless you!”

The old man prayed that God might bless him.

He said, “May you live long!”

He blessed that he might live long.

Exclamatory Sentences

“Said or said to” is changed that follows.

Exclaimed with joy, exclaimed with surprise, exclaimed with sorrow.

Conjunction ‘that’ is used.

He said, “Hurrah! We have won the match.”

He exclaimed with joy that they have won the match.

The old woman said, “Alas! I am ruined.”

The old woman exclaimed with sorrow that she was ruined.

Sentences with Good in the beginning.

“Said or said to” is changed into ‘bade’

He said, “Good morning my friends.”

He bade good morning to his friends.

Sentences with ‘Happy’ in the beginning.

“Said or said to” is changed into wished.

In place of conjunction, ‘a’ is used.

He said, “Happy Deepawali.”

He wished a happy deepawali.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sentence Identification Said, said to Conjunction  
Assertive Subject+HV+MV+Object+Comp. s Tell, tells, told That  
Interrogative 1 type इनमे सबसे पहले Helping Verb आती है तथा बाद मैं ? Asks, ask,

Asked

If, whether  
Interrogative 2type इनमे पहले question Word तथा बाद मैं ?

 

Asks,ask,asked Question word  
Imperative इनमे पहले Please, don’t, verb आता है

 

Advised ,suggested,

Ordered

,requested,

Forbade

To ,not to

 

 
Let us इनमे let के बाद us शब्द आता है.

 

Suggested ,proposed That we should

That you should

That they should

 
Let without us इनमे let के बाद us को छोड़ कर अन्य शब्द आता है

 

Advised ,suggested,

Forbade,

Ordered,

,commanded

,requested

To, not to  
Exclamatory इनमे Hurrah ,alas ,

what a, how a शब्द आता है

 

 Exclaimed with joy

Exclaimed with sorrow

Exclaimed

With surprise

Applauded–saying

That  
Optative इनमे Prayed ,blessed,

Coursed, wished आता है

Prayed ,blessed,

Coursed,

wished

That  
         
         
Good इनमे Good आता है Bade Nothing  
Happy इनमे Happy आता है Wished A  
         

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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